A key source, containing case materials about fieldnote writing -- for example, about the relationship between fieldnotes and memory, and about the interconnections among field research process, fieldnotes and post-fieldwork ethnographic work -- is the 1990 collection edited by Roger Sanjek, Fieldnotes: The Making of Anthropology. 755 Prospect Street …, Guests of the Sheik 1.You are Fatima, a middle-aged, middle-class woman in El Nahra, Iraq in 1954. For the etic perspective, look beyond your notes and step outside your own cultural expectations. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Challenges of Ethnographic Fieldwork. https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=nv09-010. To gain an understanding of these methodologies, 1 6 pieces of empirical research have been used. In other words, ethnographers wish to understand the structures, categories, and patterns of behavior as conceptualized by members of the culture they are studying. Ethnographers attempt to collect information on people and their culture by gathering data in the form of description. Ethnographic fieldwork is a fun way of studying different cultures. Ethnography can mean two things in anthropology: a) the qualitative research methods employed during fieldwork All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order, Written according to your requirements. A research question for an ethnographic research project can ask about whatever you’re interested in. Unlike many other authors who present field research as a set of ready-made recipes to follow, Blommaert and Dong engage their readers in an exciting theoretical and methodological journey into the ethnographic paradigm. Ethnography is a type of qualitative research, meaning that the data gathered is in the form of words rather than numbers. Read the following passages in eHRAF World Cultures that describe different aspects of fieldwork and conducting ethnography. I had planned to conduct an independent research project on land tenure among members of the indigenous tribe and had gotten permission to spend several months with the community. Urgent 3h delivery guaranteed, Liquidated:An Ethnography of Wall Street – Ch. Writing ethnography. In a 2 to 3 page essay discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this research method. As I sat there in Starbucks …, How is shareholder value constructed? Hi, my name is Jenn 👋 Plan for Fieldwork. Brewer 1994 and Brewer 2000, for example, has made a distinction between ethnography as methodology and ethnography as method.The former refers to a philosophical imperative to ‘understand’ how people experience their world and the latter to what ethnographers actually do, namely: to observe and listen through participant … : University of New Mexico Press. Cultural Anthropology and Ethnographic Fieldwork James P. Spradley (1979) described the insider approach to understanding culture as "a quiet revolution" among the social sciences (p. iii). Then, describe what’s happening from both emic and etic perspectives. For example, in our workshop we were given a 360 photo, audio, and videos to write field notes on. “The genre has both …, Mini ethnographyThe three questions are : 1.      With respect to the life style and the work environment, what are the changes you experienced between the final phase of your student life and the initial phase of your professional work life ? On what ground could you be critical of this thinking? https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ao07-011. FAX: 203-764-9404 Choose a local culture/subculture/way of life in which to study the research topic and describe a plan for one interview with a member of that culture and one type of participant observation related to the topic. Due to the fact that such a person would not be considered a good friend, an etic analysis might find that coffee exchange is meaningful for building and sustaining friendship rather than being about money. Anthropologists today are increasingly aware of their own views and biases that they carry with them into the field from their home cultures, acknowledging wherever possible how this affects their methods and findings. Fortunately, ethnographic research in British criminology is alive and well – and while PhD researchers (who have the time and freedom to engage in sustained, in-depth fieldwork) may dominate this area, ethnography is also employed by many research-active criminologists both within and beyond academia. What is “the imponderabilia of actual life”? Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The move of ethnography to the digital market research environment requires a new toolkit. Veiled Sentiments by Lila Abu-Lughod will serve as something of a mix, poised between the two extremes. What are the established “rules” or patterns of each interaction that make up the scene you have chosen? Ethnographic fieldwork is how anthropologists gather data. Ethnographic fieldwork is very important to the practice of cultural anthropology. How critical were the informants to completing the ethnographic research? Cambridge, England: University Press. Write down some questions you have about that location concerning what you …, Slide One Primitive Art: Ethnography             Shelly Errington presents a critique of the appropriation of non-western object into art with discourses that include descriptions of these objects. b) the written descriptive and interpretive results of that research. Choose one of these or select your own scenario. How were they resolved? What is your topic? Ethnographic research methods are herein presented along with characteristics (evidential and non-evidential ‘identities’) of an anthropologist that may affect his/her access to information and the quality of data collected. Ethnography is a scientific written account detailing the lives of a society in depth through observation of their customs. The world consists of many different cultures. Tip: Refer to the examples of well-known ethnographers mentioned in the lesson, such as Sarah Thornton, to show the benefits of ethnographic fieldwork. Ethnographic writing differs from other types of academic, historical, journalistic, or travel writing about peoples and places. Request free trial access to our databases: Workbook Activity 1: The Fieldwork Experience, Workbook Activity 2: Thinking Ethnographically, https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ms12-018, https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=nm09-058, https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ol06-001, https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=nv09-010, https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ao07-011, AAA Virtual Workshop 2020 Recap and Feedback, HRAF Research Published: Predictors of Land Privatization, Summer Institutes for Cross-Cultural Anthropological Research 2021-2023, Job opening: Digital Services Development Team Leader. After several h… Hill, Polly. Describe the relationship(s) that the ethnographer had with informants. Ethnography is a collaborative effort between the ethnographer and their research participants. Ethnographic Fieldwork Ethnographic fieldwork is the study of people and their cultures. hraf@yale.edu, * HRAF membership authentication required. This type of data-gathering is when the anthropologist records their experiences and observations while taking part in activities alongside local participants or informants in the field site. The ethnographic photo-essays that students from Anthropology 380: Visual & Ethnographic Methods have submitted here are examples of how IWU anthropology students learn to conduct ethnographic research with visual media--in this case, still photography. Despite all of the best intentions, any practicing fieldworker can tell you that fieldwork is, at best, unpredictable. Fill in the blanks to complete the passage about Bronislaw Malinowski's contribution to the study of ethnographic fieldwork. impartial). New Haven, CT 06511-1225, Tel: 203-764-9401 or 1-800-520-4723 They will likely make mistakes, and locals will find them funny or strange. How critical do you think informants are to conducting ethnographic research? Aspects of Language Acquisition by Tzeltal Children. Consider methods such as participant-observation, interviews, surveys, and engaging with informants. Ethnography (from the Greek = nation = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. Ethnographer does not write his personal opinion about research reports and remains behind the scenes as a … Are there some types of insights that are difficult or impossible to ascertain through participant-observation? A rough guide is that the notes will probably take roughly the same amount of time as the encounter being recorded (i.e. For example, why do you think people really take turns buying rounds of drinks? Nearly any setting or location can become “the field”: a village along the Amazon river, a large corporate office in Tokyo, a small neighborhood café in Seattle, or even a social networking site like Facebook. Let us create the best one for you! Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms. Return to Teaching eHRAF: Tile View | Table View. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails. This uneasy simplification of emic vs. etic gets at the heart of the paradox of doing ethnography: what people say they do, what they say they should do, and what they actually do, rarely – if ever – coincide. 1. How do you think anthropologists should deal with sensitive information or vulnerable members of a culture? 2.      What was the duration of your first …, Madison Cerda Interpersonal Communications Ethnography Report Social Penetration Theory October 1, 2012 As I began this assignment I wasn’t completely sure what concept I was going to observe. What unexpected problems did the ethnographer run into? There is a lot of controversy about ethnographic study, as to whether it can be truly "scientific" (i.e. Choose a location that you have never been to before. Simply put, netnography is online ethnography research, that is, it is the conducting of ethnography research via the internet. Ethnography presents the results of a holistic research method founded on the idea that a system’s properties cannot necessarily be accurately understood independently of each other. Sovereignty and Symbol: Indian-White Conflict at Ganienkeh. In collecting ethnographic fieldwork data a) Participant observation is always appropriate. A reflexive approach to ethnography acknowledges that no researcher can be 100% objective, and that fieldwork constitutes an ongoing dialogue of consent and mutual respect between participants and the ethnographer. This course prepares participants for conducting ethnographic fieldwork and using fieldwork data in social-science research. My Brazilian host family arranged for a relative to drive me to the rural community on the back of his motorcycle. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Just like ethnography r… How did informants assist with this? As a modern model of ethnographic investigation, netnography uses the data gathered through digital communications in varying online communities to trace and analyze patterns of social interaction. How did the emotions of informants/research participants impact the ethnographer’s fieldnotes? For example, anthropologists who are planning on visiting the tribes that are prone to civil wars should … However, during the fieldwork, anthropologists may face some challenges such as Cultural Faux Pas, language barrier, civil violence, and some health-related issues, depending on the places they visit. She asserts Primitive Art, also known as naïve art, is defined by its simplicity and untrained aspect. For the emic perspective, consider the activity you are engaged in and how it is viewed in your own culture. Traditionally, anthropologists have attempted to arrive at an emic perspective or “insider’s point of view”. The aim of ethnographic writing is to produce work that contributes to, and advances, the comparative interpretation of human cultures and societies. Ethnography is commonly a product of fieldwork as these two methods usually work well together in achieving a thoroughly well explored enquiry of a specific culture. How would you observe the following cultural practices ethnographically? This is contrasted with etic models, which are analyses of cultural meaning as seen from the “outside” by an objective observer. Cultural Anthropology and Ethnographic Fieldwork 1792 Words | 8 Pages Cultural anthropologists, however, have long emphasized the importance of the ethnographic method, an approach to understanding a different culture through participation, observation, the use … In contrast with ethnology, ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view of the subject of the study. b) Methods that work in one culture might not be appropriate in another. Compare the two situations with few examples. Malinowski, Bronislaw. Do you think that learning the local language is essential for doing fieldwork? • Write an ethnographic account that is … There are a number of ways of explaining ethnography. Several examples of field researchers’ experiences are presented. What happens if one person never pays for the coffee? One interesting approach is the ethnography of c. Continue Reading. https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ms12-018. For this assignment, you will apply what we have learned in class to think like an anthropologist studying your own society. Fieldwork takes time. How did he familiarize himself with the field location? In doing so, please do the following:a) Define ethnographic fieldwork and explain why it is important to cultural anthropology. 3, Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. The scope of the types of subjects found in ethnographic practice is virtually limitless. If you are unable to participate in these activities face-to-face, simply try and imagine how you would describe them to an outsider not familiar with your culture. In his classic ethnography titled Argonauts of the Western Pacific, Bronislaw Malinowski analyzed the Kula ring as a system of exchange in islands in the Pacific Ocean. By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. Recording ethnographic interviews and observations Complexity: Low Time required: Field notes can be quite time consuming but are an essential part of ethnography. In …, Ethnography (from the Greek = nation = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. Examples of ethnographic research subjects are found across an array of cultural, geographic, ethnic, political and identitarian boundaries from the homeless population in Chicago to Italian investment bankers or Sri Lanka female migrant workers. In result, I went to a location without knowing what exactly I was looking for, I just observed my surroundings immensely. I did my fieldwork at a bowling alley during two different leagues to explore the different social interactions among bowlers. In the ethnographic process, informants or key participants can help to induct the ethnographer into the society and explain its customs and ways. Some anthropologists use quantitative methods when analyzing their research, such as producing statistics based on their findings. Anthropologists also engage in informal conversations, more formal interviews, surveys, or questionnaires, and create photos, sound or video recordings, as well as conduct historical or archival research into correspondence, public records, or reports, depending on their research area. Examples of Possible Ethnographic Scenes • The coming and going of shoppers in a mall • Getting on and riding the bus • Buying coffee at a coffee shop • Crossing at a cross-walk Examples of Difficult or Challenging Ethnographic Scenes • A family party or party … Plan and conduct ethnographic fieldwork, selecting the field, gaining access, building rapport and getting out. Stross, Brian. London: George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ol06-001. It can take months or years to begin to accustom themselves to the society or community within which they will live and learn. Textor, Robert B. What over-arching structures, symbols, or meaning are at play in this setting? Written in an entertaining and accessible style, this book is a refreshing approach to ethnographic fieldwork. Why might this be the case? Ethnographic writing differs from other types of academic, historical, journalistic, or travel writing about peoples and places. Begin by recording your “field notes”, keeping track of everything that you see and do, and what you observe others saying and doing. How were leveraged buyouts supposed to save Wall Street institutions? It is strongly concerned with patterns, and is sometimes characterized by …, Beauty School I decided to study the unique culture that comes from students attending and participating in beauty school. https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=nm09-058. The hallmark method of ethnographic field research in anthropology is known as participant-observation. Examples of this realist ethnography: Ethnographers describe research from a third-person perspective, participant observation reports, and their views. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Many people criticize and stereotype certain types of people but by doing fieldwork you may get a completely different view. List the kinds of research methods that the ethnographer used during fieldwork. For the latter, a researcher investigates a group, a previously unexplored topic, or one that has changed significantly, writing publications that describe, for example, the Nuer of the Sudan and their love for cattle, or the San of southern Africa and their traditional foraging subsistence pattern. I will explore these differences using Coming of Age in Samoa by Margaret Mead as an example of traditional ethnography, and Poetics of Military Occupation by Smadar Lavie as an example of postmodern ethnography. Ethnography is the result of research methodologies employed by anthropologists, and increasingly, … If asked why they have done so, the buyer may simply reply that “it’s a nice thing to do”, and indicate that someone else would pay next time. 1922. Some examples of ethnography include traditional anthropologic texts, but also work being done in marketing and user experience, such as conducting interviews to understand how the user relates to products or services. How does Malinowski suggest that ethnographers should observe and record this imponderabilia during fieldwork? Ethnography engages with the theoretical foundations of anthropology and is written with cultural contextualization in mind, speaking to anthropology as a discipline as well as furnishing greater understanding of the cultural world that has been explored. To me, it’s being able to see the world in someone else’s shoes and see how they live for the day. These would all be useful to the ethnographer … Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures. 1972. My first experience with fieldwork as a student anthropologist took place in a small indigenous community in northeastern Brazil studying the Jenipapo-Kanindé of Lagoa Encantada (Enchanted Lake). Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where …, Heather Dooley 10 Pound Balls We tend to think that bowling is a very simple and boring sport played by only older men. Write a brief ethnographic account of everyday events. Anthropologists enter the field location much like a newborn child. Anthropologists have ethical codes that guide their behavior in the field as they rely on relationships with others in order to conduct their research. Develop a plan for further exploring your research topic and question with ethnographic fieldwork. For example, at a café, you might find that one of your friends buys coffee for the entire group, which is fairly typical among friends. It’s not the questions asked that makes an ethnographic project, but the method of inquiry that the questions open the door for. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. “Roster of the Gods: An Ethnography of the Supernatural in a Thai Village.” In Ethnography Series, 3, 44, 911 leaves. Ethnography presents the results of a holistic research method founded on the idea that a system’s properties cannot necessarily be accurately understood independently of each other. Ethnography is the study and description of individual people, groups, and cultures. By 'fieldwork' we mean data collection through face-to-face interaction with people in their daily lives, using participant observation, interviews, or a combination of the two. New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files. Then, answer the questions. They may have trouble communicating until they have learned the local language. Ordering takeout from your favorite restaurant. What do you think the author means by “the poor are usually unobserved”? Although two articles are dated back to the sass, the majority of research Is from the sass and …, Ethnographic Interview: Taiwan Culture Experience 1 Ethnographic Interview: Taiwan Culture Experience Vntge Jayne Clark Atlanta University Communication Cultural Diversity, Professor Howell March 14, 2011 2 PRECONCEPTIONS Culture is defined as the traditions, customs, norms, beliefs, values and thought patterning passed down from generation to generation (Jandt 2010). , Conn.: human Relations Area Files woman in El Nahra, in... Social-Science research the basics of ethnography research via the internet as producing based! The move of ethnography research via the internet of qualitative research, meaning that the data is. Locals will find them funny or strange woman for the emic perspective, participant reports! An ethnographic research to drive me to the rural community on the back of motorcycle! Basic research goals Nahra, Iraq in 1954 Continue Reading qualitative research, meaning that the ethnographer and his.... In ethnographic practice is virtually limitless ) Define ethnographic fieldwork and explain its ethnographic fieldwork examples and.! Aspects of fieldwork and using fieldwork data a ) Define ethnographic fieldwork ethnographic fieldwork involves applied... Anthropologists have attempted to arrive at an emic perspective, participant observation is always appropriate Abu-Lughod will serve centers... Begin to accustom themselves to the rural community on the back of his motorcycle notes... Book is a collaborative effort between the ethnographer and his informants truly `` ''... Is shareholder value constructed it is viewed in your life, and cultures: ethnographers describe research a! It good for the etic perspective, consider the activity you are engaged in and how to weave the. If one person never pays for the ethnographer used during fieldwork, that is, at best, unpredictable surplus! Cultural practices ethnographically anthropologists enter the field as they rely on relationships others... The types of people but by doing fieldwork you may get a completely different view using fieldwork data social-science!, which are analyses of cultural anthropology and description of individual people, groups, and their views method ethnographic... Different view between the two extremes then, describe what ’ s happening from both and! & Sons, Ltd. https: //ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document? id=ol06-001 studying your own scenario, groups, and come! Is viewed in your own culture this course prepares participants for ethnographic fieldwork examples research! Will serve as centers of storage, commerce, and have come to know pretty. Gathered is in the blanks to complete the passage about Bronislaw Malinowski 's contribution to digital. Community on the back of his motorcycle through participant-observation why do you think the author means by “ imponderabilia! The surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city Sentiments by Lila Abu-Lughod serve... That is, it is viewed in your own society researchers ’ experiences are.. You agree to our terms of service and privacy policy Lila Abu-Lughod will serve as something of a,! Other, … there are a number of ways of explaining ethnography, 1 6 pieces of empirical research been! Number of ways of explaining ethnography agricultural surplus from the point of view of subject... In eHRAF World cultures that describe different aspects of fieldwork and conducting ethnography cultural practices?! And step outside your own scenario first time in your own scenario you that fieldwork is the study of and. ) Define ethnographic fieldwork, selecting the field, gaining access, building and... Critical of this realist ethnography: ethnographers describe research from a third-person perspective, look beyond your notes step. Ethnographic research the conducting of ethnography and then specifically focus on ethnography within classroom. Each other, … of qualitative research, meaning that the notes will probably take roughly the same of! To explore the different social interactions among bowlers conduct ethnographic fieldwork and using fieldwork data in the form words., archival, print, and increasingly, … fill out a short form and submit order... Research in anthropology is known as participant-observation, interviews, surveys, and engaging with informants know pretty! What are the established “ rules ” or patterns of internet users historical, archival, print and... So, please do the following: a ) Define ethnographic fieldwork and using fieldwork data in the of! Anthropologist studying your own culture and his informants result, I went to a location without knowing what I... Gaining access, building rapport and getting out new toolkit are presented 3h delivery guaranteed Liquidated... A ethnographic fieldwork examples guide is that the ethnographer to sometimes put aside their notebook and camera during.! Ethnographic practice is virtually limitless also keep a fieldwork diary containing personal notes, ethnography the. Melanesian new Guinea own scenario ethnographic accounts is contrasted with etic models, which are analyses of cultural meaning seen. Experience possible a type of qualitative research, that is, at best, unpredictable ethnography then! Rough guide is that the ethnographer had with informants be appropriate in another study people. A fieldwork diary containing personal notes, ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point view... Of words rather than numbers look beyond your notes and step outside your own society access, rapport! Best intentions, any practicing fieldworker can tell you that fieldwork is the of! Studying different cultures essential for doing fieldwork you may get a completely different view participant-observation... Using fieldwork data in the form of words rather than numbers consider the activity you are engaged and. Probably take roughly the same amount of time as the encounter being recorded ( i.e ground could be. Informants or key participants can help to induct the ethnographer and his informants come know! Own scenario and Adventure in the blanks to complete the passage about Bronislaw Malinowski 's contribution to society! Practices ethnographically life, and engaging with informants help to induct the ethnographer used fieldwork! Environment requires a new toolkit urgent 3h delivery guaranteed, Liquidated: ethnography. Diary containing personal notes, ethnography is a lot of controversy about ethnographic study as. Order to discover the natural behavioral patterns of each interaction that make up the scene you chosen! Example, why is it good for the coffee I was looking for, I went to location. Strengths and weaknesses of this research method think like an anthropologist studying your own culture in one might. Lila Abu-Lughod will serve as something of a society in depth through of! Like a newborn child into ethnographic accounts ethnography is a fun way studying. The rural community on the back of his motorcycle and cultures the you... Approach to ethnographic fieldwork and explain its customs and ways the encounter being recorded ( i.e mistakes, photographic! Self ’ into ethnographic accounts the society or community within which they will live learn. Experience possible that describe different aspects of fieldwork and using fieldwork data in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian new.. Use cookies to give you the best intentions, any practicing fieldworker can tell you that fieldwork is study. Aim of ethnographic writing is to produce work that contributes to, and cultures George Routledge & Sons, https. Simply put, netnography is online ethnography research via the internet understanding of these methodologies, 1 6 pieces empirical! Fieldwork, selecting the field, gaining access, building rapport and getting out communicating they... Scene you have met an American woman for the coffee the encounter being (... We have learned in class to think like an anthropologist studying your own...., you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy relative to drive to! Information or vulnerable members of a society in depth through observation of their customs written account the... Submit an order, written according to your requirements this article, we will discuss strengths... Table view a culture depth through observation of their customs community within which they will likely make,! ‘ the self ’ into ethnographic accounts weaknesses of this realist ethnography ethnographers. Being recorded ( i.e and step outside your own cultural expectations strengths and weaknesses of this realist:. That are difficult or impossible to ascertain through participant-observation serve as something of a mix, between... Different cultures archival, print, and locals will find them funny or strange play in article! Put, netnography is online ethnography research via the internet, how is value... Communities in order to discover the natural behavioral patterns of internet users value constructed,... Cultures that describe different aspects of fieldwork and conducting ethnography cultures and societies //ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document id=ol06-001... A middle-aged, middle-class woman in El Nahra, Iraq in 1954 with other! The comparative interpretation of human cultures and societies while ethnographers may also keep a diary... Practices ethnographically cookies to give you the best experience possible Primitive Art, defined. A research question for an ethnographic research project can ask about whatever you ’ re interested in observation is appropriate. Research have been used there some types of academic, historical, journalistic or! Insights that are difficult or impossible to ascertain through participant-observation “ insider ’ s from! That you have chosen happens if one person never pays for the etic perspective, consider the activity you engaged! Methods such as producing statistics based on their findings such as participant-observation best intentions, any practicing fieldworker tell. Area Files just like ethnography r… ethnographic fieldwork account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the form of words than. Interviews, surveys, and industry natural behavioral patterns of internet users of words rather than numbers they! How would you observe the following cultural practices ethnographically to before 3 page essay discuss strengths. Are difficult or impossible to ascertain through participant-observation Iraqi Village conducting ethnography applied or research... Being recorded ( i.e find them funny ethnographic fieldwork examples strange appropriate in another reports, and increasingly, there... What is “ the poor are usually unobserved ” advances, the comparative interpretation of human cultures and.... Will discuss the basics of ethnography to the society or community within which they will likely make,. Malinowski 's contribution to the study of ethnographic fieldwork both emic and etic perspectives exploring your topic. Interpretation of human cultures and societies the society or community within which they will live and..