According to Akbar S. Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, and presented his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. Like Mauss and others before him, he worked on topics both in sociology and anthropology. Franz Boas established academic anthropology in the United States in opposition to this sort of evolutionary perspective. In many cases, minority organisations demand cultural rights on behalf of their constituency; in other cases, the state tries to slow down or prevent processes of change or outside influence through legislation. In the 19th century modern anthropology came into being along with the development and scientific acceptance of theories of biological and cultural evolution. As Boas noted in 1905, “there are indications of [anthropology] breaking up. This is also why the material culture of 'civilized' nations such as China have historically been displayed in fine arts museums alongside European art while artifacts from Africa or Native North American cultures were displayed in natural history museums with dinosaur bones and nature dioramas. 102, No. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881), a lawyer from Rochester, New York, became an advocate for and ethnological scholar of the Iroquois. It is believed to have developed from other disciplines, such as archeology, sociology, social and … Scholars wrote histories of prehistoric migrations which were sometimes valuable but often also fanciful. He did so in a surviving work conventionally termed the History or the Histories. At the same time, individuals have a larger palette of information to choose from than they previously did. The 19th-century views, on the other hand, are nomothetic; that is, they provide laws. Drawing on the methods of the natural sciences as well as developing new techniques involving not only structured interviews but unstructured "participant-observation"—and drawing on the new theory of evolution through natural selection, they proposed the scientific study of a new object: "humankind", conceived of as a whole. Influenced by the German tradition, Boas argued that the world was full of distinct cultures, rather than societies whose evolution could be measured by how much or how little "civilization" they had. This methodology became one of the defining characteristics of contemporary cultural anthropology. Samuel G. Morton, for example, claimed to be just a scientist but he did not hesitate to provide evidence of Negro inferiority to John C. Calhoun, the prominent pro-slavery Secretary of State to help him negotiate the annexation of Texas as a slave state. This began to change by the mid-19th century, and people who were to become the founders of what is called anthropology today began to look at the more earthly nature of humanity. In fact, one writer who predicted the financial crisis long before it took place was Gillian Tett, a journalist who, thanks to her training in anthropology, understood what the financial elite were actually doing, not just what they told the public. These "researches" have been considered anthropological since at least as early as the late 19th century. In recent decades, these patterns have changed. They classify proto-anthropology as being "travel writing or social philosophy", going on to assert "It is only when these aspects ... are fused, that is, when data and theory are brought together, that anthropology appears. [30], Marco Polo's systematic observations of nature, anthropology, and geography are another example of studying human variation across space. London: The Free Press. The American Heritage Dictionary says:[8] "(It is one of) derivatives independently built to logos." In this respect, anthropology is uniquely a knowledge for the 21st century, crucial in our attempts to come to terms with a globalised world, essential for building understanding and respect across real or imagined cultural divides, and it is not only the ‘most scientific of the humanities and the most humanistic of the sciences’, but also the most useful of the basic sciences. The kind of knowledge anthropology teaches is invaluable, not least in our turbulent, globalised age, in which people of different backgrounds come into contact with each other in unprecedented ways and in a multitude of settings, from tourism and trade to migration and organisational work. 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