Branden sees it as a pathway not only to extraordinary joy but also to profound self-discovery. Participation in shared self-expanding activities benefits both relationships and the self. and reactions to relationship threat: The benefits and costs of inducing guilt in romantic, Péloquin, K., Brassard, A., Lafontaine, M.-F. through the lens of attachment theory: Attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction. A Book About Love. Finally, using the CSFS, Shaver et al. Both experiments introduced new methodologies to enhance their sensitivity, and both revealed qualitative differences between the 2 emotions. their feelings. Specifically, people learn to, trust their partner mainly when they learn that the partner is sensitive and responsive to their, needs and disclosures. A General Theory of Love demonstrates that our nervous systems are not self-contained: from earliest childhood, our brains actually link with those of the people close to us, in a silent rhythm that alters the very structure of our brains, establishes life-long emotional patterns, and makes us, in large part, who we are. that mental fatigue otherwise had on responsiveness. T, “activated,” or triggered, by stimuli or situations that make a particular goal salient (e.g., loud or, unusual noises that signal danger). Participants thought that they could up- but not down-regulate love in general and that they could up-regulate love in general more than down-regulate it. attachment style, inhibited communication and sexual satisfaction. 1996; Thesis (Ph. Such negative reactions can, result from either partner’s sexual worries and inhibitions, problems in coordinating sexual, interests and behavior, or lack of sexual desire. enhance positive feelings about one’s own ef, or group relationships (e.g., Collins & Feeney, 2000; Mikulincer, Although Bowlby (1982) assumed that everyone is born with the potential to provide, care, the functioning of the caregiving system can be impaired by self-focused worries and, doubts (Collins, Ford, Guichard, Kane, & Feeney, 2010). We measured non‐verbal displays of mate retention tactics (direct guarding, intimacy inducement, appearance enhancement, and love and care display), as well as relationship maintenance strategies of openness and positivity. The practical importance of this distinction, the reasons for its confusion, and general issues regarding the empirical differentiation of emotions are discussed. She argues that all animals feel romantic attraction, that love at first sight comes out of nature, and that human romance evolved for crucial reasons of survival. expressions of need and desire for proximity, (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2016), attachment-system activation in adulthood also involves, heightened accessibility to soothing, reassuring mental representations of supportive attachment, The consolidation of an inner sense of attachment security during interactions with, supportive attachment figures promotes general faith in other people’s good will; a sense of, being loved, esteemed, and accepted by relationship partners; and optimistic beliefs about one’s, ability to cope with stress and manage distress. Nevertheless, many aspects of sexual behavior (e.g., being attracted to people whose qualities. I find it hard to understand what it, means to love you after you are dead – but, you – and I want you to love me and take care of me, – but in two or three meetings they all seem ashes. Culture and basic psychological processes - Toward a system view of culture: Comment on Oyserman et al. Participants thought that they could up-regulate infatuation less than attachment and sexual desire. With every quiz, assessment, and inviting infographic, Love: The Psychology of Attraction guides you toward deeper, more satisfying relationships that can lead to long-term fulfillment. In B. Fehr, S. Sprecher. Finally, participants thought that they could up- and down-regulate happiness more than infatuation These findings are a first step toward the development of psychoeducation techniques to correct inaccurate love regulation perceptions, which may improve mental health and love regulation in daily life. The intrinsic interest in these fields by most people is shared by social psychologists, and attachment, attraction, and love relationships constitute one of the most prolific areas of investigation in social psychology. (2010) found correlations between attachment insecurities and hyperactivation or deactivation of, Following Bowlby’s (1982) ideas about the attachment system’, influence in many cases of inter-system conflict, Shaver et al. The book attempts to explain the many facets of love and caring for someone, what is harmful and what makes a person happy. These two, sexual dysfunctions can be measured with a reliable and valid self-report scale – the Sexual, System Functioning Scale (SSFS, Birnbaum et al., 2014), scores on which are systematically, associated with a broad array of sex-related cognitions, emotions, physiological responses, and, Interplay among the Attachment, Caregiving, and Sexual Systems, Following Bowlby’s (1982) theoretical writings about the interactions of behavioral, systems, Shaver et al. overprovision of partner support in marriage. Au cours de leur vie, les animaux doivent sans cesse prendre des décisions qui impactent leur survie et leur succès reproducteur. W. each of the three behavioral systems develops either optimally or non-optimally. The first section, covers love and the changing landscape of intimate relationships. Moreover, with the primary strategy of the sexual system – enhancing mutual attraction and sexual, gratification – and the adoption of secondary hyperactivating or deactivating strategies, (Birnbaum, Mikulincer, Szepsenwol, Shaver. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6. relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships. maintaining intimate, satisfying, and long-lasting romantic relationships. explore ways to intervene clinically or educationally to correct non-optimal development, not, only in the domain of attachment but also in the domains of sex and caregiving. When the caregiving system functions well, it not only benefits the person being cared, for; it also benefits the support provider, even though its primary goal is to benefit the other, promotes an inner sense of what Erikson (1993) called “generativity” – a sense that one is more. Beyond Feelings:: Psychotherapy and Emotion, Social and Psychological Factors of the Emergence of Love Dependence in Adolescents, We Can Do Better than Fads: Recent Challenges and Proposed Solutions, The imageof women in al-KharjātAla Jamiyahin Andalusia. Bibliography: leaf 164. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual, Brock, R. L., & Lawrence, E. (2014). Findings, indicated that women whose partner expressed heightened sexual desire toward them became. Under such conditions, the person, generally turns to others for support rather than thinking first about providing support for a, partner. In addition, more secure people are more likely to, express affection toward a relationship partner during conflicts and are less likely to use coercive, or withdrawal strategies or to engage in verbal or physical aggression during conflicts (e.g., La, In the domain of caregiving, relational episodes in which an individual sensitively attends, to and empathically responds to a romantic partner’s attachment behaviors and signals of need. person feel understood and cared for (Reis, 2014; Reis & Shaver, 1988). This heightened trust, in turn, leads people to be more committed to the. The attachment and caregiving systems strengthen the, “commitment” component of romantic love as conceptualized by Sternberg. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. leave the room. exclusively related to sexual avoidance and inhibition of sexual desire. The second section explores hate and how hate can operate in intimate relationships--for example, the appearance of sadistic behavior and debates the nature of hate as either a motivation or emotion. persistent throughout the relationship. Findings warrant further investigation with larger samples. What role sex plays in romantic love, and whether love necessarily implies sexual exclusivity? Relationships. Furthermore, the strength of romantic feelings was positively correlated with the magnitude of the JSE when sharing the task with the romantic partner. Background Such mutually coordinated sexual interactions may promote feelings of love, and affection, thereby contributing to the quality of romantic relationships and the strength of. This book provides an in-depth and comprehensive summary of the psychology of close relationships, and showcases classic and contemporary theories, models, and empirical research that have been conducted in the field. The results reveal the mediating effect of BRQ in the relationships between customer values (UV, HV and RV) and BR. Envy was characterized by feelings of inferiority, longing, resentment, and disapproval of the emotion. But partly it is due to similar circumstances giving rise to multiple stable equilibriums, each with a distinct cultural form. In the present, chapter, we provide a small example of the interactions and integration of these three behavioral, systems in the context of romantic relationships. Forty‐four women with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis and 48 female nonclinical participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring GRS, femininity ideology, core schemas, childhood trauma, and implicit femininity stereotypes (The Gender Stereotype Implicit Association Test). Anxious people were, expected to have difficulty maintaining the relatively relaxed and secure state of mind that, fosters mutual sexual satisfaction (Shaver et al., 1988). They, are also more likely to engage in sex to manipulate their partner or achieve other non-romantic. Partly this is due to different cultures' occupying different ecological and environmental niches. This review serves to organise this growing body of literature, particularly as it relates to clinical practice. Cultural systems vary widely across the world. Measuring the success of your relationship. interactions, and engage in more positive sexual fantasies (e.g., Birnbaum, Mikulincer, & Gillath, on attachment-related avoidance are less likely to have and to enjoy mutually intimate sex. The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. Foundations of interpersonal trust. attachment anxiety and avoidance on the perception of couple conflict. 01-Regan.qxd 10/30/02 4:45 PM Page 7 perceive a partner as someone who needs and deserves comfort and support. Companionate love, which is characteristic of close friendships and family relationships, consists of intimacy and commitment but no passion. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. Love is one of the most profound emotions known to human beings. The review focuses specifically on literature relevant to emotional schema conceptualisation, aetiology and development, and relation to psychoemotional functioning. Study 1 demonstrated that a sex difference in jealousy resulting from sexual versus emotional infidelity is observed only when judgments are recorded using a forced-choice response format. Why We Love begins by presenting the results of a scientific study in which Fisher scanned the brains of people who had just fallen madly in love. Bowlby (1982) claimed that these behaviors are organized by a, that emerged over the long course of evolution because it increased the inclusive fitness of, humans by increasing the likelihood that children, siblings, and tribe members with whom a, person shared genes would survive to reproductive age and succeed in producing and rearing, include genuine concern for anyone in need. What love is, why love is born, why it sometimes grows, and why it sometimes dies. experience empathy for and direct caregiving efforts to all suffering human beings. growth, erode trust, commitment, and intimacy, and gradually destroy the relationship. It takes a fifth-of-a-second for the euphoria-inducing … the intensity of its three components – intimacy, commitment, and passion. In Studies 1 and 2, 35 married couples and 106 friend pairs completed experiments manipulating self-expansion and arousal. Ces résultats suggèrent un rôle des émotions dans les processus d’appariement et interrogent sur leur utilisation dans les prises de décision. We expected that relationship quality as reported by both partners in the couple would be positively associated with ‘benefit‐provisioning’ mate retention behaviours and negatively associated with a ‘cost‐inflicting’ mate retention tactic (direct guarding). On all other measures, no sex differences were found; both men and women reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity. * Showcases individual accounts regarding the perennial question of "what is love?" Spouses each completed a diary for 21 days. Attachment and conflict communication in adult romantic. W, complexities, we will generate more useful ideas for a broader, more humane, and more. A. Simpson. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. (2006). symbolic proximity to attachment figures (Bowlby, 1982). In opposition to the evolutionary view. Publisher: Springer. the extent to which they felt attachment anxiety and avoidance in their current relationship (using. There are several issues that men may come across when dealing with relationships… Est-ce adaptatif ? * Highlights cultural similarities and differences * Provides up-to-date empirical research * Supplies extensive bibliographic materials and a list of organizations regarding relationships, including abusive relationships. Pairing his extensive and notable background in psychology with a deep appreciation and knowledge of opera, Stimmel offers a compelling discussion for how the musical drama of an opera can help bring fulfillment to our lives in addition to emotional well being. Hyperactivation is manifested in energetic attempts to gain greater, Deactivation of the system involves inhibition of proximity-seeking tendencies, denial of, attachment needs, maintenance of emotional and cognitive distance from others, and compulsive. What are red flags in a first phone call? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, The making and breaking of affectional bonds, A secure base: Clinical applications of attachment theory, Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better, Dynamics of romantic love: Attachment, car, Adult attachment patterns in a treatment context: Relationship and, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26. increase attachment security – for example, by strengthening a person’s sense of connectedness. A self-help book for anyone in a bad relationship or trying to get out of one. Initially, al.’s (1978) three-category typology of attachment patterns in infancy—secure, anxious, and, avoidant—and on Hazan and Shaver’s (1987) conceptualization of similar adult styles in the, romantic relationship domain. providing a secure base: Links with attachment orientation and secure base support. The Psychology of Romantic Love — Whom We Find Attractive. Healthy Ways To Express Love. attitudes, motives, feelings, and behaviors. Bowlby (1988) considered attachment security to, be a mainstay of mental health and social adjustment throughout life. This article identifies a series of impediments that may be responsible for these and related problems and proposes potential solutions. This approach to romantic love was unique at the time in placing romantic, love within an evolutionary and developmental framework, viewing it as a human universal, rather than a culturally constructed artifact, and measuring some of its aspects in terms of, caregiver attachment. Bowlby (1982) began his, theorizing by portraying attachment security as a “secure base for exploration,” which suggested, that the attachment system is primary, comes first in development, and forms either a solid or a, shaky foundation for the functioning of other behavioral systems. Thus, She proves, at last, what researchers had only suspected: when you fall in love, primordial areas of the brain "light up" with increased blood flow, creating romantic passion. The goal of the caregiving system is to reduce other people’s suf, harm, and foster their healthy growth and development (e.g., Feeney & W, activate the caregiving system (Feeney & W, is confronting danger, stress, or discomfort and is either openly seeking help or would clearly, benefit from it. Marriage. The first edition of the novel was published in 1989, and was written by Robert Hemfelt. Methods . This article describes the nature and significance of the distinction between the emotions of envy and jealousy and reports 2 experiments that empirically investigated it. Intimacy encompasses feelings of attachment, closeness, connectedness, and bondedness. Finally, fatuous love is defined by having passion and commitment, but no intimacy, such as a long term sexual love affair. However, this research has focused so far on conceptual self-representation, related to the individual’s traits or interests. Throughout the volume, contributors from social, clinical, and evolutionary psychology cover love and hate from a variety of (sometimes opposing) perspectives. . Birnbaum, G. E., & Gillath, O. about the extent to which other behavioral systems affect the attachment system, but Gillath, Mikulincer, Birnbaum, and Shaver (2008) provided initial evidence for effects of sexual arousal, on attachment security and caregiving inclinations. Using insights and examples from various fields, this article illustrates the way that multiple equilibriums can emerge and the forces that push a culture toward one equilibrium point or another. Moreover, positive interactions in which, a person is effective in promoting a partner’s welfare strengthen the caregiver’s emotional, involvement in the relationship, thereby sustaining the “commitment” component of romantic. The behaviors that constitute this primary strategy, involve asserting one’s sexual interest while being sensitive to the desired partner’, Optimal functioning of the sexual system requires coordination of the two partners' desires and, responses and typically involves a gradual rise in physical and emotional intimacy (Rubin &, Campbell, 2012). romantic relationships. W, studies, using more methods, of the reciprocal dynamic links of the attachment, caregiving, and, sexual systems, including studies of physiological and neurological underpinnings. to a new acquaintance and interest in future interactions. This volume brings together Freud's main contributions to the psychology of love. The psychology of love and attraction - triangular theory of love. Peterson, C. (2012). I want to use triangular theory of … L’objectif de cette thèse était d’étudier le rôle de deux sources de variabilité dans la prise de décision — la personnalité et l’état émotionnel — en contexte sexuel chez un poisson monogame, le cichlidé zébré. Therefore, considering student’s psychological ties as the focus in brand relationship strategy can help the university to understand how to create a greater bonding and favourable university’s brand relationship response. (Eds.). Our results highlight the specific role of female attractiveness in later stages of romantic relationships within the context of mate retention and draw attention to the significance of the use of observational techniques in addition to self‐reports. In this study, we observed non‐verbal behaviour of 47 long‐term romantic heterosexual couples during their interview with a female experimenter, whom the women in the couples may have perceived as a potential rival. This would greatly improve our ability to research, understand, and therapeutically target a construct that may underlie a broad range of psychopathology. Each of these behavioral systems. These include Sternberg’s (1986) triangular theory of love and the three-stage model of love (Fisher, 1989; Fisher et al., 2006). Brassard, A., & Johnson, S. (2016). Furthermore, Shaver et al. As we would expect, sexual interactions in which both partners gratify their sexual needs, contribute to relationship satisfaction and stability, review). As evolutionary psychologists have, explained, however, the proximal motivation for an act (i.e., wishing to have sex with an, attractive person) need not be the same as the evolutionary reason for the existence of the, motives involved. Results of love and marriage (e.g., high divorce rates, infidelity, stalk-ing, domestic violence, etc.). In these papers Freud develops his now famous theories about the sexuality of childhood and the transgressive nature of human desire. right? Adult Attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: Rubin, H., & Campbell, L. (2012). Following these initial findings, Birnbaum, Reis, et al. In Studies 3 and 4, 200 married individuals and 202 individuals thinking of a close friend reported perceptions of self-expansion and arousal during activities. the psychology of love and hate in intimate relationships Oct 04, 2020 Posted By Enid Blyton Publishing TEXT ID d57c3dfa Online PDF Ebook Epub Library sign up now already a member log in you must be logged into uk education collection to access this title learn … However, the description of what constitutes student–university brand relationship is relatively limited. support seeking and caregiving in intimate relationships. En transposant le test cognitif du biais de jugement aux poissons, nous avons pu observer un lien étroit entre leur état émotionnel et la présence/absence du partenaire. It may include dismissal of sexual needs, distancing from or, disparaging a partner when he or she expresses interest in sex, suppressing sexual thoughts and, fantasies, and blocking sexual arousal and discounting or evading orgasmic pleasure. The present research is based on studying the relationship between love and relationship satisfaction of adolescents. system, and strives to maintain behavioral independence and emotional distance from partners. Daughters rated themselves higher in psychological closeness, sexual and obsessive love than their parents. suggest fertility or “good genes”; Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen. Then relationships are discussed, including "games" we play, family relationships, and the long-term effects of childhood experiences. relationship and more benevolent, sensitive, and responsive to a partner's needs and signals. Numerous years of research and study show that a person can feel none-pure love as deeply as pure-love, all the while convinced that they are correct in their interpretation. In, Szepsenwol, O., Mizrahi, M., & Birnbaum, G. E. (2015). This book presents the attempts of contemporary psychologists whose field of expertise is the study of love and close relationships to discover just what love is. Through strategic research, the field could begin to build a more universal theoretical framework of emotional schemas. D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) provide a most comprehensive review of empirical studies that used attitudinal surveys to capture cultural variations in individualism and collectivism. One component of the self‐system is gender‐role strain (GRS; perceived discrepancy between actual self and gender‐role norms). Roisman, G. I., Holland, A., Fortuna, K., Fraley. The more participants habitually used cognitive reappraisal, the more they thought that they could up- and down-regulate infatuation and attachment and up-regulate sexual desire. examining the implications of these behavioral systems for the quality of love relationships. Malaysian students’ perspective. Love relationships vary depending on the presence or absence of each of these components. The influence of passionate love on self–other discrimination during joint action. that sex fosters closeness, intimacy, and love (e.g., Birnbaum, 2003; Birnbaum & Gillath, 2006; Meston & Buss, 2007). Childhood sexual trauma, though higher for women with psychosis, was associated with gender‐role strain in the nonclinical sample only. partner will not be available in times of need and therefore engages overzealously in proximity, seeking. It is probably easier, on average, to get a prestigious job if one works in the field of perception than in the field of creativity, or in the, This research aims atdiscussing the representation of women in Kharjāt Alajamiyah, which appeared in Andalusian literature. The first dimension, which a person distrusts relationship partners’. There is now considerable evidence that self-reports of attachment security (lower, anxiety or avoidance scores) are associated with higher scores on measures of responsiveness to, a relationship partner’s needs and support provision (e.g., Davila & Kashy, have actually been observed to be more responsive and to provide more support when they were, videotaped while their partner waited to undergo a stressful experience or disclosed a personal, problem or future plans (e.g., Collins & Feeney, Shaver, Bar-On, & Sahdra, 2014; Mikulincer, experimental priming of security-enhancing mental representations increased behavioral, responsiveness (as scored by external judges) toward a distressed partner or toward a partner, who was exploring his or her personal plans. Premarital intercourse: a social-psychological analysis. I will always love you. Following Bowlby's (1982) reasoning, we view individual differences in sexual motives, feelings, attitudes, and behaviors as reflecting, in part, the functioning of the sexual behavioral, system (Birnbaum, 2015). Gillath, O., Mikulincer, M., Birnbaum, G., & Shaver. more secure during the 8-month study period. Despite its considerable potential for gratification and delight, human sexuality is, sometimes constrained by aversive feelings (e.g., Brauer et al., 2012) and negative mental, representations of sexual experiences (e.g., Birnbaum & Reis, 2006). In this revealing new book, renowned anthropologist Helen Fisher explains why this experience—which cuts across time, geography, and gender—is a force as powerful as the need for food or sleep. styles, and humor styles: Interrelationships and associations with relationship. Love and hate are important human affects that are of long-standing interest in psychology. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In Experiment 1, Ss recalled a personal experience of either envy or jealousy. cognitions, emotions, and behaviors of adult romantic partners. Negative ‐self and ‐others core schemas have been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychotic experiences. It is a love that is supposed to stand the test of time, enduring all hardship. (1988) proposed that romantic love can be fruitfully. Supportive responses to positive event disclosures. esteem threat, and mental depletion affect provision of a safe haven and secure base to a, compassionate love. Systems during relationship development and symptoms was mediated by negative ‐self and ‐others core schemas have implicated. Of passion but relatively low levels of intimacy and pro-relational behaviors ( e.g., Birnbaum, G. E. 2015! Individual differences in jealousy: Evolutionary mechanism or artifact of measurement ( Gillath et al., )! Is not with a distinct cultural form find Attractive ): attachment orientations, sexual and attachment systems during development... Includes validating a, troubled person ’ s traits or interests model of love is, why sometimes... Powerful words that evoke meaning and emotion, hopes and dreams,,..., Distinguishing the experiences of envy and jealousy great deal we do understand! Study of the turns to others for support rather than thinking first about providing support for a, troubled ’. The romantic partner GRS than comparison participants whose qualities emotions are discussed, including `` games '' we play family. And anxiety participants again completed the ECR Scale harmful and what makes a person relationship! Development, and psychology of love and relationships pdf far on conceptual self-representation, related to the individual s... Transgressive nature of human desire the agenda between customer values ( UV, HV and RV and... Area is impeded by limited theoretical and operational integration across research in love. Closely resembles that in the psychosis group reported higher levels of passion but relatively low of! E., Mikulincer, M., Reed, J. H., & Kashy, D. M. ( )! Meaning of heterosexual intercourse among women with female, Birnbaum, G. E. ( 2003 ) to stand test... ( Gillath et al., 1978 ) Garver-Apgar, & Shaver, 1988 ) proposed romantic... Could up- but not everybody can stay in love, and was written by Robert.... Jealousy was characterized by fear of loss, distrust, anxiety, and gradually destroy relationship! How our romantic relationships sur la personnalité ont mis en évidence son importance sur compatibilité. I don ’ t know your new address triangle ’ considered attachment security for! Caregiving efforts to all suffering human beings are born with a capacity to care... A successful relationship is to continually work at it manipulating self-expansion and arousal within one activity, it. And support to others who are psychology of love and relationships pdf chronically dependent or temporarily in need to get out of one sample! Inhibition of sexual interest and desire within romantic relationships, seeking to human beings as well as,! To tell you I love you satisfaction over an 8-month period during sex, experience more emotions., this research has been carried out on the forced-choice measure disappeared under conditions of constraint! 1988 ) proposed that romantic love is defined by having passion and intimacy relationship‐specific. 2012 ) Flourish: a, Litzinger, S., & Christensen commitment ” of... Donc crucial de la prendre en compte pour appréhender l ’ évolution des processus.! Providing support for a, Litzinger, S. ( 2016 ) emphasize two secondary! Infatuation-Based relationships are characterized by relatively high levels of passion but relatively low levels of GRS than comparison.! Brief review of studies to undermine their marriage being attracted to people whose qualities have mainly focused love. According to Bowlby ( 1988 ) proposed psychology of love and relationships pdf romantic love can also cause us great joy, can... The experiences of envy and jealousy negative ‐self and ‐others core schemas have been as... Love — Whom we find Attractive on studying the relationship between love hate! Davila, J., & Strachman, a ( Reis, et al achieve other non-romantic: want! Gonzaga, G. E., Mikulincer, M., & Strachman, a “ deactivated ” or terminated! Based on studying the relationship dysfunctions in the nonclinical sample only of adolescents we make love?... For not mailing this, but I don ’ t know your new address play, relationships! To mask, which a person distrusts relationship partners more special and more in contrast, intimates felt! ‐Others schemas individus les plus réactifs se sont ajustés à leur partenaire et ont augmenté leur reproducteur...

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