[129] Additionally, Trajan commissioned a canal to be built around the rapids of the Iron Gates. 004;PS 001. He then held the traditional magistracies through the praetorship, which qualified him for command of a legion in Spain in 89. [41][42] In reality, Trajan did not share power in any meaningful way with the Senate, something that Pliny admits candidly: "[E]verything depends on the whims of a single man who, on behalf of the common welfare, has taken upon himself all functions and all tasks". [93], Nevertheless, while the office of corrector was intended as a tool to curb any hint of independent political activity among local notables in the Greek cities,[94] the correctores themselves were all men of the highest social standing entrusted with an exceptional commission. [165] Finley thinks that the scheme's chief aim was the artificial bolstering of the political weight of Italy, as seen, for example, in the stricture – heartily praised by Pliny – laid down by Trajan that ordered all senators, even when from the provinces, to have at least a third of their landed estates in Italian territory, as it was "unseemly [...] that [they] should treat Rome and Italy not as their native land, but as a mere inn or lodging house". [29] According to a modern historian, Sura's role as kingmaker and éminence grise was deeply resented by some senators, especially the historian Tacitus, who acknowledged Sura's military and oratory virtues but at the same time resented his rapacity and devious ways, similar to those of Vespasian's éminence grise Licinius Mucianus. By feigning reluctance to hold power, Trajan was able to start building a consensus around him in the Senate. [79] Eventually, Dio gained for Prusa the right to become the head of the assize-district, conventus (meaning that Prusans did not have to travel to be judged by the Roman governor), but eleutheria (freedom, in the sense of full political autonomy) was denied. Imagine that, only 5 babies in Virginia have the same name … Fonts; Typeface Story; Packages; License Information; Package Options 1 packages . He was personally present at the siege, and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Trajan and a colleague of his, Publius Acilius Attianus, became co-guardians of the two children. Available at, Dante 1998, p. 593. Marcus Ulpius Trajanus the elder served Vespasian in the First Jewish-Roman War, commanding the Legio X Fretensis. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to continue to persecute Christians but not to accept anonymous denunciations in the interests of justice as well as of "the spirit of the age". [151], For the next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It may also originate in Roman displeasure at an empress meddling in political affairs. After commanding Legio I Minervia during the Dacian Wars, he had been relieved from front-line duties at the decisive stage of the Second Dacian War, being sent to govern the newly created province of Pannonia Inferior. As the marriage was childless, he took into his household his cousin Hadrian, who became a favourite of Plotina. The furthest south the Romans occupied (or, better, garrisoned, adopting a policy of having garrisons at key points in the desert)[124] was Hegra, over 300 kilometres (190 mi) south-west of Petra. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born on 18 September 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (in what is now Andalusia in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica (now in municipal area of Santiponce, in the outskirts of Seville), where the Italianfamilies were paramount. [262], Hadrian held an ambiguous position during Trajan's reign. Trajan presided as emperor over the largest military expansion within the age of the Pax Romana - and also built multiple public projects, such as dams, waterways, bridges, roads, etc. [113], The following winter, King Decebalus took the initiative by launching a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, supported by Sarmatian cavalry,[114] forcing Trajan to come to the aid of the troops in his rearguard. The Parthica, a 17-volume account of the Parthian Wars written by Arrian, has met a similar fate. [125] The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). Therefore, in reality the post was conceived as a means for "taming" both Greek notables and Roman senators. [99] Trajan created at least fourteen new senators from the Greek-speaking half of the Empire, an unprecedented recruitment number that opens to question the issue of the "traditionally Roman" character of his reign, as well as the "Hellenism" of his successor Hadrian. 206, xxxi. A splendid public bathing complex was erected on the Esquiline Hill, and a magnificent new forum was designed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Légat de Germanie supérieure, il est adopté par Nerva et associé à son pouvoir (97), puis lui succède en 98. [22] There are hints, however, in contemporary literary sources that Trajan's adoption was imposed on Nerva. [291] Mommsen also speaks of Trajan's "insatiable, unlimited lust for conquest". The Trajan font Gsell, "Étude sur le rôle politique du Sénat Romain à l'époque de Trajan". Trajan ruled strictly, but fairly, and struck an effective balance between making conquests and maintaining a high quality of life for his people. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Package; Trajan Complete Family Pack . Lendon, "Three Emperors and the Roman Imperial Regime". [60] This was something the Romans were not disposed to do as from their perspective the Greek notables were shunning their responsibilities in regard to the management of Imperial affairs – primarily in failing to keep the common people under control, thus creating the need for the Roman governor to intervene. Trajan; 13t Emperor o the Roman Empire: Marble bust o Trajan. In the Renaissance, Machiavelli, speaking on the advantages of adoptive succession over heredity, mentioned the five successive good emperors "from Nerva to Marcus"[3] – a trope out of which the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of whom Trajan was the second. David H. Higgins in his notes to Purgatorio X l. 75 says: "Pope Gregory the Great (d. 604) was held to have swayed the justice of God by prayer ('his great victory'), releasing Trajan's soul from Hell, who, resuscitated, was converted to Christianity. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicly acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and emaciated. Trajan sought to deal with this by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially. [53] This title had mostly to do with Trajan's role as benefactor, such as in the case of him returning confiscated property. He had to renounce claim to some regions of his kingdom, return all Roman runaways (most of them technical experts), and surrender all his war machines. [95] It must be added that, although Trajan was wary of the civic oligarchies in the Greek cities, he also admitted into the Senate a number of prominent Eastern notables already slated for promotion during Domitian's reign by reserving for them one of the twenty posts open each year for minor magistrates (the vigintiviri). He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and a builder of roads such as the Via Traiana - the extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum to Brundisium[153] - and Via Traiana Nova, a mostly military road between Damascus and Aila, whose building was connected to the founding of the province of Arabia (see annexation of Nabataea) . Dio, as a Greek notable and intellectual with friends in high places, and possibly an official friend to the emperor (amicus caesaris), saw Trajan as a defender of the status quo. Rome, le forum de Trajan Rome, le forum de Trajan (Italica 53-Sélinonte de Cilicie 117), empereur romain (98-117). [77] It is noteworthy that an embassy from Dio's city of Prusa was not favorably received by Trajan,[78] and that this had to do with Dio's chief objective, which was to elevate Prusa to the status of a free city, an "independent" city-state exempt from paying taxes to Rome. His selection represented a reaction against Domitian’s autocracy and a return to the cooperation between emperor and Senate that had characterized the reign of Vespasian. Trajan's Column and Church of the Most Holy Name of Mary at the Trajan Forum - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock [192] Commercial activity in second century Mesopotamia seems to have been a general phenomenon, shared by many peoples within and without the Roman Empire, with no sign of a concerted Imperial policy towards it. Jens Gering, Rezension zu: Karl Strobel, Kaiser Traian – Eine Epoche der Weltgeschichte, Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (father of Trajan), Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappos, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, "Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105: De Imperatoribus Romanis", "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trajan&oldid=995359199, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2020, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:42. The program was supported initially out of Dacian War booty, and then later by a combination of estate taxes and philanthropy. [154], One of Trajan's notable acts during this period was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date is unknown). [54], That Trajan's ideal role was a conservative one becomes evident from Pliny's works as well as from the orations of Dio of Prusa – in particular his four Orations on Kingship, composed early during Trajan's reign. The Dacians and their allies were repulsed after two battles in Moesia, at Nicopolis ad Istrum and Adamclisi. [26][27] These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan. [236] However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. It was at this point that Trajan's health started to fail him. [176] The fact that the alimenta were restricted to Italy highlights the ideology behind it: to reaffirm the notion of the Roman Empire as an Italian overlordship. [208] The intended campaign, therefore, was immensely costly from its very beginning. [5] Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives mostly as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. However, the placement of the slab at Caput Bovis suggests that the canal extended to this point or that there was a second canal downriver of the Kasajna-Ducis Pratum one. [22], Since Domitian's successor, Nerva, was unpopular with the army and had just been forced by his Praetorian Prefect Casperius Aelianus to execute Domitian's killers,[23] he felt the need to gain the support of the military in order to avoid being ousted. Author of. In 76–77, Trajan's father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. [225] It is noteworthy that no new legions were raised by Trajan before the Parthian campaign, maybe because the sources of new citizen recruits were already over-exploited. According to Pliny, the best way to achieve this was to lower the minimum age for holding a seat on the council, making it possible for more sons of the established oligarchical families to join and thus contribute to civic spending; this was seen as preferable to enrolling non-noble wealthy upstarts. Wiseman, James 1997 "Beyond the Danube's Iron Gates. [66], Competition among Greek cities and their ruling oligarchies was mainly for marks of preeminence, especially for titles bestowed by the Roman emperor. Find the complete details of Trajan name on BabyNamesCube, the most trusted source for baby name meaning, numerology, origins, similar names and more! Engaging publicly in conversations with Dio ] Besides this, Pliny the Younger, he. 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