Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. According to Pliny, the best way to achieve this was to lower the minimum age for holding a seat on the council, making it possible for more sons of the established oligarchical families to join and thus contribute to civic spending; this was seen as preferable to enrolling non-noble wealthy upstarts. [225] It is noteworthy that no new legions were raised by Trajan before the Parthian campaign, maybe because the sources of new citizen recruits were already over-exploited. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Trajan, Jewish Encyclopedia.com - Biography of Trajan, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Trajan. [141] The garrison city of Oescus received the status of Roman colony after its legionary garrison was redeployed. For the emperor's father, see. This name is mostly being used as a boys name. Their military function fulfilled, most of them fell into disrepair or were wrecked on purpose after Trajan's reign: cf. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicly acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and emaciated. He was succeeded by his cousin Hadrian, whom Trajan supposedly adopted on his deathbed. Trajan™ By Adobe. Finally, in 105, Decebalus undertook an invasion of Roman-occupied territory north of the Danube. [169] Reliance solely on loans to great landowners (in Veleia, only some 17 square kilometers were mortgaged)[170] restricted funding sources even further. [220] This process seems to have been completed at the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. Born into a non- patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian . [95] It must be added that, although Trajan was wary of the civic oligarchies in the Greek cities, he also admitted into the Senate a number of prominent Eastern notables already slated for promotion during Domitian's reign by reserving for them one of the twenty posts open each year for minor magistrates (the vigintiviri). [99] Trajan created at least fourteen new senators from the Greek-speaking half of the Empire, an unprecedented recruitment number that opens to question the issue of the "traditionally Roman" character of his reign, as well as the "Hellenism" of his successor Hadrian. [197] Accordingly, in his controversial book on the Ancient economy, Finley considers Trajan's "badly miscalculated and expensive assault on Parthia" to be an example of the many Roman "commercial wars" that had in common the fact of existing only in the books of modern historians. [297] The biography by the German historian Karl Strobel stresses the continuity between Domitian's and Trajan's reigns, saying that Trajan's rule followed the same autocratic and sacred character as Domitian's, culminating in a failed Parthian adventure intended as the crown of his personal achievement. On either side, the Capitoline and Quirinal hills were cut back for the construction of two hemicycles in brick, which, each rising to several stories, provided streets of shops and warehouses. Trajan's Column and Church of the Most Holy Name of Mary at the Trajan Forum - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock [62] Nevertheless, as a Greek local magnate with a taste for costly building projects and pretensions of being an important political agent for Rome,[63] Dio of Prusa was actually a target for one of Trajan's authoritarian innovations: the appointing of imperial correctores to audit the civic finances[64] of the technically free Greek cities. Impressive examples survive in Spain, in North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Italy. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. For Italy and the provinces, he remitted the gold that cities had customarily sent to emperors on their accession. The program was supported initially out of Dacian War booty, and then later by a combination of estate taxes and philanthropy. [36] His belated ceremonial entry into Rome in 99 was notably understated, something on which Pliny the Younger elaborated. These provide a commentary on the campaigns and also a repertory of Roman and Dacian arms, armour, military buildings, and scenes of fighting. xxx. He was personally present at the siege, and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. [299] For Paul Veyne, what is to be retained from Trajan's "stylish" qualities was that he was the last Roman emperor to think of the empire as a purely Italian and Rome-centered hegemony of conquest. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Although frequently designated the first provincial emperor, his [151], For the next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. IN Ryan K. Balot, ed.. Bernard W. Henderson, "Five Roman Emperors" (1927). Of Italian stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. Marcus Ulpius Trajanus the elder served Vespasian in the First Jewish-Roman War, commanding the Legio X Fretensis. Trajan, however, dropped the charge. Trajan is based on the inscriptional capitals from the Trajan column in Rome, built AD 113. While his family was probably prominent in Baetica, his father was the first to join the imperial service. One was Pliny the Younger, whom he dispatched to Bithynia-Pontus, a province on the northern coast of Asia Minor. Available at, Dante 1998, p. 593. J." [30], As governor of Lower Germany during Nerva's reign, Trajan received the impressive title of Germanicus for his skillful management and rule of the volatile Imperial province. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan was a soldier who spent most of his life involved in campaigns. [128] Trajan also reformed the infrastructure of the Iron Gates region of the Danube. claim that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina who assured the succession to Hadrian by keeping his death secret and afterwards hiring someone to impersonate Trajan by speaking with a tired voice behind a curtain, well after Trajan had died. Fonts; Typeface Story; Packages; License Information; Package Options 1 packages . [117], The peace of 102 had returned Decebalus to the condition of more or less harmless client king; however, he soon began to rearm, to again harbor Roman runaways, and to pressure his Western neighbors, the Iazyges Sarmatians, into allying themselves with him. He is also remembered for Trajan’s Column, an innovative work of art that commemorated his Dacian Wars. By trying to develop an anti-Roman bloc, Decebalus eventually left Trajan without the alternative of treating Dacia as a protectorate, rather than an outright conquest. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace within the Empire and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Trajan was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in present-day Spain, an Italic settlement in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. [200] Also, there was the propaganda value of an Eastern conquest that would emulate, in Roman fashion, those of Alexander the Great. Cassius Dio added that he always remained dignified and fair. [138] In another arrangement with no parallels in any other Roman province, the existing quasi-urban Dacian settlements disappeared after the Roman conquest. Between 1880 and 2019 there were 153 births of Trajan in the countries below, which represents an average of 1 births of children bearing the first name Trajan per year on average throughout this period. They constitute a most important source for Roman provincial administration. [9] Therefore, discussion of Trajan and his rule in modern historiography cannot avoid speculation. Pope Professor Emeritus of Latin Language and Literature; former Professor of Roman History, Harvard University. Birthplace: Italica, Baetica Location of death: Selinus, Cilicia Cause. He commissioned either the creation or enlargement of the road along the Iron Gates, carved into the side … [245] Later in 116, Trajan, with the assistance of Quietus and two other legates, Marcus Erucius Clarus and Tiberius Julius Alexander Julianus,[246][247] defeated a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatruces was killed (possibly with the assistance of Osroes' son and Sanatruces' cousin, Parthamaspates, whom Trajan wooed successfully). Trajan, né sous le nom de Marcus Ulpius Traianus le 18 septembre 53 à Italica et mort le 8 ou 9 août 117 à Selinus, en Cilicie, est empereur romain de fin janvier 98 à août 117. [291] Mommsen also speaks of Trajan's "insatiable, unlimited lust for conquest". Having come to the narrow strip of land between the Euphrates and the Tigris, he then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia and finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. Wiseman, James 1997 "Beyond the Danube's Iron Gates. Trajan Designed by Carol Twombly and Robert Slimbach. Updates? Omissions? [278][279], In Egypt, Trajan was quite active in constructing buildings and decorating them. Pliny – who seems to deliberately avoid offering details that would stress personal attachment between Trajan and the "tyrant" Domitian – attributes to him, at the time, various (and unspecified) feats of arms. [181] That meant that Charax on the Persian Gulf was the sole remaining western terminus of the Indian trade route outside direct Roman control,[182] and such control was important in order to lower import prices and to limit the supposed drain of precious metals created by the deficit in Roman trade with the Far East. 000;Core 1. Ph.D Thesis, University of Missouri, 2015, page 70. Trajan died in A.D. 117 after falling ill while defending the empire’s extensive borders. [156], In 107 Trajan devalued the Roman currency. [19], It has been remarked by authors such as Julian and Cassius Dio that Trajan was personally inclined towards homosexuality. Dio is described by Philostratus as Trajan's close friend, and Trajan as supposedly engaging publicly in conversations with Dio. Certes, il descend de colons italiens immigrés, et il a même grandi au sein de la noble famille des Vlpii (il s'appelait Marcus Vlpius Traianus). lib1. We have thousands of free fonts available for you. Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Find the complete details of Trajan name on BabyNamesCube, the most trusted source for baby name meaning, numerology, origins, similar names and more! [125] The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). [251] Another rebellion flared up among the Jewish communities of Northern Mesopotamia, probably part of a general reaction against Roman occupation. Patrick Le Roux, IN Ségolène Demougin, ed., Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns", 8. Upon reaching the Persian Gulf, he is said to have wept because he was too old to repeat Alexander the Great’s achievements in India. Behind the new forum was a public hall, or basilica, and behind that a court flanked by libraries for Greek and Latin books and backed by a temple. [116] Trajan returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title Dacicus. [22], Since Domitian's successor, Nerva, was unpopular with the army and had just been forced by his Praetorian Prefect Casperius Aelianus to execute Domitian's killers,[23] he felt the need to gain the support of the military in order to avoid being ousted. [162] Given its limited scope, the plan was, nevertheless, very successful in that it lasted for a century and a half: the last known official in charge of it is attested during the reign of Aurelian. [39] Therefore, he could point to the allegedly republican character of his rule. He also lessened taxes and was probably responsible for an innovation for which Nerva is given credit—the institution of public funds (alimenta) for the support of poor children in the Italian cities. [20], As the details of Trajan's military career are obscure, it is only sure that in 89, as legate of Legio VII Gemina in Hispania Tarraconensis, he supported Domitian against an attempted coup. [90] When the city of Apamea complained of an audit of its accounts by Pliny, alleging its "free" status as a Roman colony, Trajan replied by writing that it was by his own wish that such inspections had been ordered. [261] After reaching Selinus (modern Gazipaşa) in Cilicia, which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 8. As Pliny wrote to Trajan, this had as its most visible consequence a trail of unfinished or ill-kept public utilities. Skip to main content. He added Dacia, Arabia, Armenia, and Mesopotamia to the empire, waging war against Decebalus and the Parthians. [204] Alternatively, one can explain the campaign by the fact that, for the Romans, their empire was in principle unlimited, and that Trajan only took advantage of an opportunity to make idea and reality coincide. [145] Even in the absence of further Roman expansion, the value of the province depended on Roman overall strength: while Rome was strong, the Dacian salient was an instrument of military and diplomatic control over the Danubian lands; when Rome was weak, as during the Crisis of the Third Century, the province became a liability and was eventually abandoned. Trajan built a new city, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, on another site (north of the hill citadel holding the previous Dacian capital) although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. Dio, who tells this narrative, offers his father – the then governor of Cilicia Apronianus – as a source, and therefore his narrative is possibly grounded on contemporary rumor. [164] According to the French historian Paul Petit, the alimenta should be seen as part of a set of measures aimed towards the economic recovery of Italy. [171] It is possible that the scheme was, to some extent, a forced loan, something that tied unwilling landowners to the imperial treasure in order to make them supply some funds to civic expenses. [284] A third-century emperor, Decius, even received from the Senate the name Trajan as a decoration. [285] After the setbacks of the third century, Trajan, together with Augustus, became in the Later Roman Empire the paragon of the most positive traits of the Imperial order. He had to renounce claim to some regions of his kingdom, return all Roman runaways (most of them technical experts), and surrender all his war machines. R. P. Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan". The slab, dated to the year 101, commemorates the building of at least one canal that went from the Kasajna tributary to at least Ducis Pratum, whose embankments were still visible until recently. [177], In 113, Trajan embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. [76], The first known corrector was charged with a commission "to deal with the situation of the free cities", as it was felt that the old method of ad hoc intervention by the Emperor and/or the proconsuls had not been enough to curb the pretensions of the Greek notables. The letters exchanged between Pliny and Trajan during the two years of Pliny’s governorship are preserved as the 10th book of his correspondence. Eugen Cizek, "Tacite face à Trajan", available at, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984), The History of the Roman People, pp. [280], Ancient sources on Trajan's personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. [236] However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. He became a provincial governor and in 67–68 commander of a legion in the war the future emperor Vespasian was conducting against the Jews. [123] Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. Although misleadingly designated by some later writers as a provincial, his Ulpia gens came from Umbria and he was born a Roman citizen. [105], Trajan is known particularly for his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia – the reduction to client kingdom (101–102), followed by actual incorporation into the Empire of the trans-Danube border group of Dacia – an area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unstable peace negotiated by Domitian's ministers with the powerful Dacian king Decebalus. Trajan (/ˈtreɪdʒən/ TRAY-jən; Latin: Caesar Nerva Traianus pronounced [ˈkae̯sar ˈnɛr.wa t̪rajˈjaːnʊs]; 18 September 53 – 8 August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. However, the placement of the slab at Caput Bovis suggests that the canal extended to this point or that there was a second canal downriver of the Kasajna-Ducis Pratum one. [201] The fact that emissaries from the Kushan Empire might have attended to the commemorative ceremonies for the Dacian War may have kindled in some Greco-Roman intellectuals like Plutarch – who wrote about only 70,000 Roman soldiers being necessary to a conquest of India – as well as in Trajan's closer associates, speculative dreams about the booty to be obtained by reproducing Macedonian Eastern conquests. Impressive examples survive in Spain, in North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Italy. He served 10 years as a legionary staff tribune. His imperial name … [295] Trajan's first English-language biography by Julian Bennett is also a positive one in that it assumes that Trajan was an active policy-maker concerned with the management of the empire as a whole – something his reviewer Lendon considers an anachronistic outlook that sees in the Roman emperor a kind of modern administrator. Separate scenes of Domitian and Trajan making offerings to the gods appear on reliefs on the propylon of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. [188], In his Dacian conquests, Trajan had already resorted to Syrian auxiliary units, whose veterans, along with Syrian traders, had an important role in the subsequent colonization of Dacia. "[71][72], These same Roman authorities had also an interest in assuring the cities' solvency and therefore ready collection of Imperial taxes. So he said: 'Now be comforted, for I must However, the fact that he chose not to hasten towards Rome, but instead to make a lengthy tour of inspection on the Rhine and Danube frontiers, hints to the possible fact that his power position in Rome was unsure and that he had first to assure himself of the loyalty of the armies at the front. Ritterling, E., 1925. Trajan a vu le jour dans le sud de l'Espagne, à Italica, le 18 septembre 53. Trajan's putative lovers included Hadrian, pages of the imperial household, the actor Pylades, a dancer called Apolaustus, and senator Lucius Licinius Sura. Pliny implied as much when he wrote that, although an emperor could not be coerced into doing something, if this were the way in which Trajan was raised to power, then it was worth it. [86], Trajan ingratiated himself with the Greek intellectual elite by recalling to Rome many (including Dio) who had been exiled by Domitian,[87] and by returning (in a process begun by Nerva) a great deal of private property that Domitian had confiscated. Col. 1485. Histoire des Juifs, Troisième période, I – Chapitre III – Soulèvement des Judéens sous Trajan et Adrien, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984) History of the Roman People, p. 382, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, "Trajan was, in fact, quite active in Egypt.

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