Infolding theory 2. Classification of Bacteria by shape or cell structure. Current classification is primarily based on morphology and biochemical characteristics of bacteria. DHAKA MEDICAL COLLEGE. Fastidiousness: Certain bacteria have specific O2/CO2 requirements, need special media or grow only intracellularly. Learning Objectives. avail of full functionality of Slidesfinder.com. So, the bacterial species which take up the blue color during gram staining are called gram +ve and those which take up an orange are called gram -ve bacteria. +1800 456 789. bacteria structure ppt. Slidesfinder is a sharing website for PowerPoint presentations search and share. (Singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular microorganisms. It has a plant like cell-wall and autotrophic mode of nutrition. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA & IT’S STRUCTURE BY DR. RUBAIYA BINTE KABIR MPHIL (PART I) DHAKA MEDICAL COLLEGE 2. If you do not a Facebook account, then click on "Signup". For this reason, infections should not be underestimated. Bacteria are microscopic unicellular organism they are true living organism that belongs to the kingdom prokaryotes. 32 Pili Short protein appendages Smaller than flagella Adhere bacteria to surfaces Used in conjugation for Exchange of genetic information Aid Flotation by increasing buoyancy, 35 Shapes Are Used to Classify Bacillus: Rod shaped Coccus: Spherical (round) Vibrio: Comma shaped with flagella Spirillum: Spiral shape Spirochete: wormlike spiral shape, 37 Grouping of Bacteria Diplo- Groups of two Strepto- chains Staphylo- Grapelike clusters, 50 Archaebacteria Lack peptidoglycan in cell walls Have different lipids in their cell membrane Different types of ribosomes Very different gene sequences, 51 Archaebacteria Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments Called the Ancient bacteria, 52 Archaebacteria Subdivided into 3 groups: Methanogens Thermoacidophiles Extreme Halophiles, 53 Methanogens Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen) Get energy by changing H2 & CO2 into methane gas Found in swamps, sewage treatment plants, digestive tracts of animals, 54 Methanogens Break down cellulose in a cow’s stomach Produce marsh (methane) gas, 55 Extreme Halophiles Live in very salty water Use salt to generate ATP (energy) Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake inhabitants, 56 Thermoacidophiles or Thermophiles Live in extremely hot environments Found in volcanic vents, hot springs, cracks on ocean floor that leak acid, 58 Characteristics 3 basic shapes (coccus, bacillus, spirilla) Most are heterotrophic (can’t make their own food) May be aerobic or anaerobic Identified by Gram staining, 59 Gram Staining Developed in 1884 by Hans Gram Bacteria treated with purple Crystal Violet & red Safranin stains Cell walls either stain purple or reddish pink, 60 Gram Positive Have thick layer of peptidoglycan (protein-sugar complex) Single lipid layer Stain purple Can be treated with antibiotics, 61 Gram Positive Bacteria Lactobacilli (makes yogurt & buttermilk) Actinomycetes (make antibiotics) Clostridium (lockjaw bacteria) Streptococcus (strep throat) Staphylococcus (staph infections), 62 Gram Negative Bacteria Thin layer of peptidoglycan in cell wall Extra thick layer of lipids Stain pink or reddish Hard to treat with antibiotics Some photosynthetic but make sulfur not oxygen Some fix nitrogen for plants, 63 Gram Negative Rhizobacteria grow in root nodules of legumes (soybeans, peanuts) Fix N2 from air into usable ammonia, 64 Gram Negative Rickettsiae are parasitic bacteria carried by ticks Cause Lyme disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 65 Cyanobacteria Gram negative Photosynthetic Called blue-green bacteria Contain phycocyanin (red-blue) pigments & chlorophyll, 66 Cyanobacteria May be red, yellow, brown, black, or blue-green May grow in chains (Oscillatoria) Have Heterocysts to help fix N2 First to re-enter devastated areas Some cause Eutrophication (use up O2 when die & decompose in water), 68 Spirochetes Gram positive Flagella at each end Move in corkscrew motion Some aerobic; others anaerobic May be free living, parasitic, or symbiotic, 69 Enteric Bacteria Gram negative Can live in aerobic & anaerobic habitats Includes E. coli in intestines Salmonella – causes food poisoning, 70 Chemoautotrophs Gram negative Obtain energy from minerals like iron Found in freshwater ponds, 71 Nutrition, Respiration, and Reproduction, 72 Modes of Nutrition Saprobes – feed on dead organic matter Parasites – feed on a host cell Photoautotroph – use sunlight to make food Chemoautotroph – oxidize inorganic matter such as iron or sulfur to make food, 73 Methods of Respiration Obligate Aerobes – require O2 (tuberculosis bacteria) Obligate Anaerobes – die if O2 is present (tetanus) Facultative Anaerobes – don’t need O2, but aren’t killed by it (E. coli), 74 Bacterial Respiration Anaerobes carry on fermentation Aerobes carry on cellular respiration, 75 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission Single chromosome replicates & then cell divides Rapid All new cells identical (clones), 76 Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits into two identical daughter cells, 78 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce sexually by Conjugation Form a tube between 2 bacteria to exchange genetic material Held together by pili New cells NOT identical, 80 Spore Formation Form endospore whenever when habitat conditions become harsh (little food) Able to survive for long periods of time as endosperm Difficult to destroy (heat resistant), 81 Transduction & Transformation Genetically change bacteria May become antibiotic resistant Transformed bacteria pick up pieces of DNA from dead bacterial cells Transduction – viruses carry foreign DNA to bacteria; used to make insulin, 83 Pathogens Called germs or microbes Cause disease May produce poisons or toxins Endotoxins released after bacteria die (E. coli) Exotoxins released by Gram + bacteria (C. tetani). Read More, Published on : Mar 14, 2014 You can favorite the presentations, download presentations, and even embed them in Appendages 5. Yes, it’s absolutely safe sign-in. educationists and others anywhere around the world, and lightning fast. Facultative anaerobes: Those bacteria that do not require O2 but can use it if available. bacteria. segments.These ppt presentations are available for FREE download. Description : Available Structure of Bacteria powerpoint presentation for free download which is uploaded by search an active user in belonging ppt presentation Health & Wellness category. In the year 1872 scientist Cohn classified bacteria to 4 major types depending on their shapes are as follow: 1) Cocci: These types of bacteria are unicellular, spherical or elliptical shape. Binary Fission Leave a Comment / Uncategorized / Uncategorized Discovered by H.C. Gram in 1884 it remains an important and useful technique to this day. infolding organelle, 5 Endosymbiotic Theory Endosymbiosis refers to one species living within another(the host) Movement of smaller photosynthetic & heterotrophic prokaryotes into larger prokaryotic host cells Formed cell organelles chloroplast mitochondria, 7 Earliest Prokaryotes Most numerous organisms on Earth Include all bacteria Earliest fossils date 2.5 billion years old, 9 Three Domains of Life Archaea – prokaryotes living in extreme habitats Bacteria- Cyanobacteria and eubacteria Eukarya – Protozoans, fungi, plants, & animals, 10 Kingdoms of Bacteria Archaebacteria: Found in harsh environments Undersea volcanic vents, acidic hot springs, salty water, 12 Kingdoms of Bacteria Eubacteria: Called the true bacteria Most bacteria are in this group Include photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, 15 Bacterial Structure Microscopic prokaryotes No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Contain ribosomes Single, circular chromosome in nucleoid region, 17 Protection Cell Wall made of Peptidoglycan May have a sticky coating called the Capsule for attachment to host or other bacteria, 19 Bacterial Structure Have small rings of DNA called Plasmids Unicellular Small in size (0.5 to 2μm) PLASMIDS, 21 Bacterial Structure Infoldings of cell membrane carry on photosynthesis & cellular respiration Infoldings called Mesosomes, 23 Bacterial Structure Most grow best at pH of 6.5 to 7.0 Many act as decomposers recycling nutrients Some cause disease, 25 Useful Bacteria Some bacteria can degrade oil Used to clean up oil spills. 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